主讲人: 西悉尼大学 Catherine Best 教授
主题：Cross-language, cross-accent and cross-talker research conducted with the Carstens EMA at MARCS
After receiving her PhD in Developmental Psychology and Neuroscience (Michigan State U, 1978), Best was awarded a prestigious NIH postdoctoral fellowship grant (1978-1980) to study psycholinguistics at the world-renowned Haskins Laboratories, where she was supervised by two central figures in speech perception research: Alvin Liberman and Michael Studdert-Kennedy.
From there, she served for 4 years as the Director of the Neuroscience & Education program at Columbia University (1980-1984), and then took up a faculty position in Psychology at Wesleyan University (1984-2004). She then joined MARCS Laboratories, UWS, as Chair in Psycholinguistic Research in late 2004.
Bests research and theoretical work has focused primarily on how adults and infants experience with their native language shapes their perception and production of the phonological elements of spoken words, including consonants, vowels, lexical tones and prosodic patterns. She has applied this theme broadly, investigating perception and production of spoken language in second language learners and bilinguals, in children with language difficulties,and expanding her research to include sign language, facial expressions, and culture-specific characteristics of music. Her most significant theoretical contribution is her model the effects of language experience on perception: the Perceptual Assimilation Model (PAM: e.g., Best, 1984, 1994a, 1994b, 1995).
Bests work has offered important insights into why many non-native phonetic contrasts are difficult for adults and older infants to discriminate, while others remain much easier. Throughout her work, Best has taken an ecological, or direct realist, philosophical perspective, founded on James Gibsons ecological theory of perception. During her Wesleyan years, she was awarded a highly competitive NIH Research Career Development Award, providing her with several years of advanced linguistics training, which deepened her interest in articulatory information as a viable ecological basis for speech perception.That interest has been fundamental to the development of the PAM model, and provides the core motivation for her more recent line of research on the effects of regional accent differences in spoken word recognition by infants, toddlers and adults.
In this talk I will begin with an overview of the MARCS Institutes AHAA lab speech production research facilities (AHAA: Analyses of Human Articulatory Action). I will then summarise several studies that have been conducted at MACS Institute using the Carstens EMA machine that has been donated to SWUFE Asian Monsoon Languages and Culture laboratory. The cross-language experiment was a study of how place of articulation is achieved in terms of tongue tip+body gestures in a very rare 4-way place distinction among coronal stops, recorded MARCS AHAA speech production lab by four native speakers of the endangered Australian language Wubuy, the traditional language of the Nunggubuyu community in the Northern Territory. The cross-accent study examined relationships among tongue, face and acoustic dynamics of English spoken by Americans versus Australians. The cross-talker study was the first to investigate articulatory entrainment between two long-term acquaintances during a dyadic interaction in which one interlocutor's speech was tracked via the Carstens EMA while the others was tracked by an NDI Wave EMA (the two machines do not interfere with each other even at close conversational positioning).