主 题：Urban Growth, Transport Planning, Air Quality and Health
主讲人：利兹大学 Dr. Judith Wang
Dr Judith Wang joined the University of Leeds in 2013 as Associate Professor in Transport Engineering in a joint appointment with the School of Civil Engineering (SoC) and Institute for Transport Studies (ITS).She received her MSc(Eng) in Transport Planning and Engineering from ITS in 1993 and PhD from Hong Kong University of Science and Technology in 2004.She plays a key role as a bridge between SoC and ITS within the University of Leeds as well as internationally between the Southwest Jiaotong-Leeds Joint School in China and the University of Leeds in her role as the Programme Director of Civil Engineering with Transport. Dr Wang has over 25 years of international experience in transport planning, with substantial experience not only in academia but also in the transport industry. Prior to moving to the UK, she worked in Hong Kong, New Zealand and France. Her key work experience in Hong Kong includes operations planning of the Mass Transit Railway in Hong Kong and strategic planning for the new Hong Kong International Airport opened in 1998. In New Zealand, she had worked for the University of Auckland for more than eight years, as a Lecturer in the Department of Civil Engineering, a Research Fellow in the Energy Centre and a Senior Research Fellow in the Department of Engineering Science. In 2007, she visited Ecole des Mines de Nantes as a Visiting Lecturer for five months and later on this year she will be visiting Tokyo Institute of Technology for two months with an Invitational Fellowship.
There is no doubt that to plan for sustainable cities, we must consider the effect of transport policy on the environment in terms of air quality and its subsequent effect on health. Urban sprawl is observed in many countries around the world after decades of road dominated infrastructure investment. Urban sprawl leads to a vicious circle of low-density development in rural areas and car dependency, which is unsustainable. High density mixed development has been considered as one of the strategies to moderate this problem, yet this might not be universally preferred. Promoting smart, green and integrated transport is considered a priority in the strategic move towards sustainable development by the European Union and many other countries worldwide.
In this study, we propose a multi-objective spatial analysis framework to evaluate the economic, environmental and health impacts of transport investment strategies under different urban growth scenarios. We consider a linear monocentric city (LMC) wherein residents are distributed continuously along an urban corridor and commute daily to a common destination, the central business district (CBD), represented by one end of the linear city. Two modes are available: car and rail. Users can travel from their residence to the CBD by car on a congestible highway with stochastic travel time, or by rail from the most convenient nearby station, which they reach by walking or cycling. Travelers throughout the city have a distribution of reliability preferences. Individual mode choice is determined using the notion of travel time budget surplus to take into consideration the travel time, travel time reliability and monetary cost associated with each mode. We assume users would like to minimize travel time, monetary cost, and maximize travel time reliability. The resulting formulation is a three-objective user equilibrium model (TBSmaxTUE). For the continuous monocentric city model, TBSmaxTUE can be formulated as a fixed point problem. To admit a numerical solution the continuum is discretised, allowing it to be expressed as a standard network equilibrium assignment problem. The performance of this LMC model can then be analyzed against multiple objectives and inform policy decisions on urban growth and transport investment strategies.